The Applied Mathematics Office of the Department of Mathematics and Statistics is
located in Room 122 of the Petrie Science Building (736-5248).

The Applied Mathematics Programme aims to give students a solid base of knowledge of
mathematics which has important applications in fields such as computer science, physics,
earth and atmospheric science, chemistry, biology, psychology and also in economics and
business. Our graduates have gone into a variety of careers including business, industry
and government as well as teaching. In particular, many have found jobs in various aspects
of fields relating to computing. Some students have continued their studies in graduate
schools of mathematics, physics or other areas of application. Professional qualifications
are obtainable by the award of a diploma in Operations Research or by writing the
examinations of the Society of Actuaries (see the section on Career Information). There
are potential jobs for our students wherever mathematics is employed.

Students in Applied Mathematics in the Faculty of Pure and Applied Science may pursue a
course of study leading to either a BSc (usually three years) or a BSc (Hons) (usually
four years). Students may combine their studies in Applied Mathematics with another
subject such as Physics, Earth and Atmospheric Science, Biology, or Computer Science and
thereby graduate with a BSc (Hons) Double Major or, in some cases, a BSc (Hons)
Major/Minor in two subjects. Applied Mathematics students interested in Economics,
Psychology, or another subject offered by the Faculty of Arts may pursue a combined
programme by selecting a BA (Hons) Double Major or Major/Minor programme in the Faculty of
Arts. For example, an Economics-Applied Mathematics Major/Minor BA (Hons) would be a
natural combination. Our students are given the opportunity to take electives in other
areas of interest, such as business administration.

All students take a common core of courses in Calculus, Differential Equations, Linear
Algebra, Symbolic Computing (Maple), and Numerical Analysis. The core of required courses
is larger for Honours students. There is a wide choice of elective courses in Applied
Mathematics, including Graph Theory, Operations Research, Partial Differential Equations,
Advanced Numerical Analysis, and Complex Variables. In addition, students can select a
number of optional courses from outside the programme. Courses in the programme stress
applications of mathematics and computing to the solution of problems arising in many
facets of science, engineering and commerce.

Some possible areas of concentration and corresponding recommended courses are:

*Numerical Analysis:*

MATH 4141, MATH 4142, MATH 4470

*Discrete Applied Math / Operations Research:*

MATH 3170, MATH 3260, MATH 4141, MATH 4160, MATH 4170, MATH 4430

*Applied Math in Physical Sciences / Differential Equations:*

MATH 3271, MATH 3410, MATH 4141, MATH 4142, MATH 4241, MATH 4270, MATH 4271, MATH 4470,
MATH 4830

*Statistical Applied Math:*

MATH 3131, MATH 3132, MATH 3033, MATH 3034, MATH 3330, MATH 3430, MATH 4230, MATH 4430,
MATH 4630, MATH 4730, MATH 4830, MATH 4930.

(In all cases, you should make sure that you satisfy all your degree requirements,
given in the checklists towards the back of this minicalendar.)

All students entering Applied Mathematics are carefully advised concerning their course
of study by a member of the programme. The instructors in Applied Mathematics courses are
available throughout the year for additional advice and help with specific course-related
problems.

If you would like further information, please contact the Programme Director, Prof.
Martin Muldoon (e-mail:muldoon@yorku.ca), or the
Programme Secretary, Gillian Moore (736-5248).

Starting 1 July 1999, the Programme Director will be Professor Buks van Rensburg
(e-mail: rensburg@mathstat.yorku.ca).

The Honours Programmes in Mathematics (BA and BSc) are suitable for students who have a
special fondness for mathematics. These Programmes provide an excellent background for
many occupations demanding skills in mathematical reasoning and techniques. They are ideal
for students who intend to pursue graduate study in mathematics. An Honours programme in
mathematics emphasizes the understanding of concepts, abstraction and reasoning; these
then become the tools for problem-solving, as well as the language and environment in
which problems are solved ("proofs"). Most students who creditably complete a
York Honours degree in mathematics are routinely accepted (with financial support
included!) into Graduate Schools across North America. Taking mathematics in combination
with Computer Science, Statistics, or Economics makes for a very impressive curriculum
vitae for a graduate seeking a career in Industry, Government, or Business.

Mathematics is one of the oldest academic disciplines. A mathematician is known as one
who has exceptional reasoning, critical thinking, and problem-solving skills. While the
public knows of the *utility* of mathematics, less well known is the fact that most
mathematicians do math *because they love it*. The Honours programmes are designed to
help you cultivate this same passion. You will meet like-minded classmates, and you will
find that your studies are a rewarding and exciting adventure bringing you to the frontier
of scientific discovery.

The Ordinary Programme (BA and BSc) provides a three-year degree in mathematics that is
much less demanding than the honours program and is very flexible. It allows the student
to select courses in a wide variety of pure and applied mathematical areas. It can also be
part of a liberal arts education with a moderate emphasis on mathematics, for example as a
Minor in an Honours Major/Minor degree.

Many students find that they are not yet ready to begin an Honours programme in
Mathematics in first year. The department has introduced the course MATH 3110 for this
reason. A student who completes the regular Calculus sequence MATH 1300/1310/2310 may
later take MATH 3110, and use these four half-courses as a substitute for the Honours
sequence MATH 1000/1010/2010 (currently, 2310 replaces 2010). There is also an arrangement
to allow a substitution for the first Honours course in Algebra (MATH 2021/2022). However,
a student considering an Honours degree in Mathematics should seriously consider enrolling
in the Honours courses 1000/1010/2021/2022, since they are designed for those with a
genuine interest in Mathematics. In addition, Honours students who wish to switch back, in
mid-term, to the Ordinary stream will be accommodated to the extent that the Registrar's
Office will allow.

Statistics is an interdisciplinary field providing the foundations and techniques to
collect, analyze and present information in an effective and efficient manner. Through its
applications in almost every branch of modern professional life and research, statistics
is a fast-growing discipline which provides a statistician with a variety of career
opportunities. A programme in statistics is an exploration of the nature of measurement,
relationships amongst measured variables, chance variation, probability, uncertainty,
inductive logic and inference. The Honours and Ordinary BA and BSc Programmes in
Statistics provide both the mathematical foundations and the methods needed in
applications. They also provide exposure to a variety of computing environments, an
essential asset for nearly all careers today. Statistics combines naturally with studies
in the life, physical or social sciences, economics, administrative studies or
environmental studies. The Honours programmes also provide excellent preparation for
subsequent graduate studies in statistics.

Mathematics for Commerce is an excellent environment for students who wish to obtain a
background in the type of mathematics that can be applied in a business-oriented career.
Courses such as Introduction to Computer Use, Mathematics of Investment and Actuarial
Science, Mathematics with Management Applications, Operations Research, Regression
Analysis, and Sample Survey Design provide the student with the necessary mathematical and
statistical skills, techniques and confidence to succeed in a very demanding business
world.

Graduates of this programme go on to various careers in business, industry, government,
schools, colleges and universities. They become actuaries, investment managers,
consultants, analysts, or statisticians. Examples of activities in which they may be
involved are: optimization problems, project management, inventory control, forecasting,
analysing data, investigating patterns and trends, creating mathematical models,
evaluating pension funds, and determining premiums for life insurance policies. Of course,
many of the programme's students also pursue graduate degrees in areas such as Business
Administration, Education, Environmental Studies, and Law.

Mathematics for Commerce offers an Ordinary BA programme, an Honours Major BA
programme, and an Honours Minor BA programme. The Honours Major may not be combined with
any other Honours Major or Minor. The Honours Minor *must* be combined with some
other Honours Major.

The *Ordinary degree* is usually completed in three years and requires a total of
90 credits.

The *Honours Minor programme* is combined with an Honours Major from another
department, as part of a programme totalling 120 credits.

The *Honours Major degree* is usually completed in four years and requires a total
of 120 credits.

All three programmes are subject to both Faculty of Arts and Department of Mathematics
and Statistics requirements listed on two separate pages toward the back of this
minicalendar. The Honours Major degree is offered in two streams:

*The Actuarial Stream*

An Actuary is a professional concerned with the design and administration of insurance
policies, pension plans, government welfare plans, and similar programmes. The main
responsibility of actuaries is to ensure that these programmes operate on a sound
financial basis. To do this, they use many areas of mathematics and statistics, as well as
general principles of economics and finance. In North America, the standard way to become
an actuary is to pass the examinations set and administered by either the Society of
Actuaries or the Casualty Actuarial Society. No university courses can be accepted in
place of these examinations, but university courses can do a great deal to prepare the
student for them. Additional information can be found at both http://www.math.yorku.ca/Careers/actuary.html
and http://www.soa.org/ , and can also be obtained from
Professor David Promislow at 736-5250.

*The Operations Research Stream*

Operations Research is the scientific study of any problem relating to optimal
management of a system. The programmes of study at York can provide the student with the
diverse background needed to prepare for work in operations research. The Canadian
Operational Research Society (CORS) offers a diploma to students who complete a prescribed
array of courses. At York it is possible to earn a CORS diploma and an Honours degree
simultaneously. For additional information, please consult http://www.cors.ca
or inquire at the Undergraduate Office (N502 Ross). For the specific diploma
requirements see CORS
Diploma in Operational Research on the Career Information page.

### Business and Society (BuSo)

There will be a new interdisciplinary degree programme in the Faculty of Arts, starting
in September 1999. Called "Business and Society" (BuSo, for short), the
programme offers both Ordinary and Honours degrees. BuSo is a collaborative effort on the
part of six departments in the Faculty of Arts, of which the Department of Mathematics and
Statistics is one.

BuSo degree candidates must complete "Streams" in two of the six
participating BuSo departments. Those who choose Mathematics and Statistics as one of
their two Streams must, in effect, concentrate either in Operations Research or in Applied
Statistics (18 credits for Ordinary, 24 for Honours).

*Operations Research*

- calculus, or calculus with matrix algebra (MATH 1550 6.0 or (MATH 1530 3.0 + 1540 3.0)
or (MATH 1300 + 1310))
- linear algebra (MATH 2221 3.0)
- either MATH 2500 3.0 or MATH 2560, or, if statistics was already taken in the student's
other Stream, then either MATH 2222 3.0 or 3 "further credits" in statistics
- operations research (MATH 3170 6.0)
- (Honours only) further operations research (MATH 4570 6.0)

*Applied Statistics*

- calculus with matrix algebra (MATH 1550 6.0 or (MATH 1530 3.0 + 1540 3.0))
- introductory statistics (MATH 2560 3.0 + 2570 3.0)
- regression analysis (MATH 3330 3.0)
- applied statistics (MATH 3430 3.0 or MATH 3034 3.0)
- (Honours only) further applied statistics (MATH 4730 3.0 + MATH 4930 3.0)

Further information about BuSo can be obtained from the Arts Advising Centre (S319
Ross), or from the Division of Social Science (S741 Ross).

### Information Technology (ITEC)

The Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics is home to the

#### Faculty of Arts

Information Technology Programme.

We have designed special programmes for Mathematics, Statistics, and Math for Commerce
students which will allow them to take full advantage of their mathematical skills in
preparing for a computer-oriented information technology career. Please visit our website:
http://itec.yorku.ca.